Harvest and fermentation
Vines have an annual vegetative cycle, therefore it allows one harvest per year, at the end of Summer/beginning of Fall, from which the vintage of the wine is derived, and which is refer to as the year of harvest.
Once harvested, the grapes are transformed into wine in a cellar. This process is called Vinification. The grapes are pressed, and the must that is obtained is fermented. Depending on the type of grapes used, there are different types of wine.
Wine is the product of the alcoholic fermentation of the sugars contained in the grape must. From the vitis vinifera (European vine) all the suitable vines are derived for the production of wine and for eating.
After the refinement phase, which can be for varying lengths of time, from a few months in steel containers to many years in wooden barrels, the wine is bottled and arrives at our tables.
The nine main types of wine:
- Sparkling wines
- Light white wines
- Structured white wines
- Aromatic white wines (sweet)
- Rosé wines
- Light red wines
- Medium-bodied red wines
- Full-bodied red wines
- Dessert wines
Data and historical wine notes
Italy is the country with the highest concentration of wine in the world.
The ancient Greeks in fact called Italy “Enotria” considering the adaptability of its land to the cultivation of vines and the production of quality wine.
About one million vines are grown in Italy, of which more than 90% is used for wine production. Of these vines, over 350 are indigenous vines that are becoming more and more established both in the national and international scene.
The basic criteria for which Italian wine is distinguished
In Italy, wine is classified according to Law 164 of 1992, a law transposing Community Directive 930 of 1963 which governs the production characteristics of various wines, classifying them, on the basis of an increasing qualitative order, in:
- Table wine
- Wines with Typical Geographical Indication (IGT)
- Wines with Controlled Designation of Origin (DOC)
- Wines with Controlled and Guaranteed Designation of Origin (DOCG)
Orvieto is a DOC wine
The production of this incredible wine is allowed in the provinces of Terni and Viterbo, in an area considered to be the oldest in Umbria. Orvieto is one of the oldest wine production areas in Italy.
Since the time of the Etruscans, wine was produced in caves dug into the tuff with the use of a system based on 3 levels:
- In the first level the force of gravity pressed the accumulated grapes, the must was formed which underwent fermentation.
- In the second level the racking took place thus obtaining an aromatic product with fruity scents that matured in the third level where it was stored.
- The fame of this wine was such that painters such as Pinturicchio and Signorelli asked for a contribution in wine for the works they carried out inside the Cathedral of Orvieto.
Over the years Orvieto has become a reference point for white wines of Italy. This wine was used by Garibaldi to toast before leaving Talamone for Sicily.
In 1971 Orvieto became a DOC (Controlled Designation of Origin); From the 1997 harvest it became possible to produce Orvieto with the “Superiore” qualification, obtained thanks to a decrease in the yield per hectare, and by increasing the minimum alcoholic strength limit to 12%.
In the Orvieto DOC wine there is also the “muffa nobile” type.
The wineries around Orvieto rise on top of the hills surrounding the city and often hide real underground labyrinths dug into the tuff. Exploring these centuries-old caves and then re-emerging with a chalice in hand and enjoying the view of the city in the distance is priceless.
If you love red wines, the soils give life to intense and fine reds as well, Orvietano Rosso DOC.